There has been an explosion in TOTs research . Check out a few of these publications:

Baxter, R., Merkel-Walsh, R., Baxter, B. S., Lashley, A., & Rendell, N. R. (2020). Functional improvements of speech, feeding, and sleep after lingual frenectomy tongue-tie release: A prospective cohort study. Clinical Pediatrics, 000992282092805.

Briddell, J.W., Vandjelovic, N.D., Fromen, C.A., Peterman, E.L. & Reilly, J.S. (2020). Geometric model to predict improvement after lingual frenulectomy for ankyloglossia. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 134.DOI:


Buck, L. S., Frey, H., Davis, M., Robbins, M., Spankovich, C., Narisetty, V., & Carron, J. D. (2020). Characteristics and considerations for children with ankyloglossia undergoing frenulectomy for dysphagia and aspiration.

American Journal of Otolaryngology, 102393. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102393

Hand, P., Olivi, G., Lajolo, C., Gioco, G., Marigo, L., Castagnola, R., & Cordaro, M. (2020). Short lingual frenum in infants, children, and adolescents. Part 1: Breastfeeding and gastroesophageal reflux disease improvement after tethered oral tissues release. European journal of paediatric dentistry, 21(4), 309–317.

Hill, R. R., Lee, C. S., & Pados, B. F. (2020). The prevalence of ankyloglossia in children aged <1 year: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatric research, 10.1038/s41390-020-01239-y. Advance online publication.

Katz, R. V., Dearing, B. A., Ryan, J. M., Ryan, L. K., Zubi, M. K., & Sokhal, G. K. (2020).

Development of a tongue-tie case definition in newborns using a Delphi survey: The NYU–Tongue-Tie Case Definition. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 129(1), 21–26. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2019.01.012

Kim, T., Lee, Y., Yoo, S., Lee, S.Yun, E. (2020). Comparison of simple frenotomy with 4-flap Z-frenuloplasty in treatment for ankyloglossia with articulation difficulty: A prospective randomized study. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 136. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.110146


Lopes de Castro Martinelli, R., Marchesan, I.Q., & Berretin-Felix, G. (2020). Tongue position for lingual frenulum assessment. Revista CEFAC, 22(1), e0120. Epub February 17, 2020.

Lopes de Castro Martinelli, R., Jordão Gusmão, R., Moya Daza, M. P., Queiroz Marchesan, I., & Berretin-Felix, G. (2020). Profile of Scientific Production on Ankyloglossia. International Journal of Medical and Surgical Sciences, 8(1), 1-13.

Mariana Do Rêgo Barros De Andrade Fraga, Barreto, K. A., Lira, T. C. B., & Menezes, V. A. D. (2020). Is the Occurrence of Ankyloglossia in Newborns Associated with Breastfeeding Difficulties? Breastfeeding Medicine. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2019.0199


Merdad H. & Mascarenhas, A, K. (2020). Ankyloglossia may cause breastfeeding, tongue mobility, and speech difficulties, with inconclusive results on treatment choices. Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice, 10 (3); 152-153.  


Merkel-Walsh, R. (2020). Orofacial myofunctional therapy with children ages 0-4 and individuals with special needs, International Journal of Orofacial Myology and Myofunctional Therapy, 46 (1), 22-36.


Messner, A. H., Walsh, J., Rosenfeld, R. M., Schwartz, S. R., Ishman, S. L., Baldassari, C.,Satterfield, L. (2020). Clinical Consensus Statement: Ankyloglossia in Children. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 019459982091545. doi: 10.1177/0194599820915457


Mills, N., Geddes, D.T., Amirapu, S. & Ali Mirjalil, S. (2020). Understanding the lingual frenulum: histological structure, tissue composition, and implications for tongue tie surgery. International Journal of Otolaryngology 2020(12):1-12.


Sfasciotti, G. L., Zara, F., Fioravanti, M., Guaragna, M., Palaia, G., & Polimeni, A. (2020). Frenulectomy with Diode Laser Technology in Paeditric Patients: Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations. Randomized Double- Blind Clinical Trial. Applied Sciences, 10(12), 4114. doi:10.3390/app10124114

Slagter, K. W., Raghoebar, G. M., Hamming, I., Meijer, J., & Vissink, A. (2020). Effect of frenotomy on breastfeeding and reflux: results from the BRIEF prospective longitudinal cohort study. Clinical oral investigations, 10.1007/s00784-020-03665-y. Advance online publication.


Thanks to Mary Billings, Kristie Gatto, Linda D'Onofrio, Robyn Merkel-Walsh  and Nicole Archambault, The OMI now has an EBP reference list on Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders.

Robyn Merkel-Walsh and Lori Overland have made their Tethered Oral Tissue(s) available. Please click on Evidence Based Practice (EBT) on for the most recent list.

Diane Bahr and Kristie Gatto had a wonderful reference list at the 2017 ASHA convention.

For more references we suggest that you join the OROMYOFUNCTIONAL STUDY GROUP led by Linda D'Onofrio on Facebook. Be sure to answer the required membership questions to be accepted.



The following articles and ASHA presentations/posters have been published by the Board Members of the Oral Motor Institute. As always, is to provide therapists with examples of Evidenced Based Practice.

If you have an article that you think should be added to this list, please contact us.

List is alphabetical by author.


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