Oral Motor Institute

«Vol. 1, No. 1




Oral Motor Institute
Volume No. 2, Monograph No. 1, 16 January 2008

A TOPICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ORAL MOTOR ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT

To Help Address the Current Controversy Regarding Oral Motor Research

Peer Reviewers: Leslie Faye Davis, MS, CCC-SLP; Daymon Gilbert, M Ed, CCC-SLP; Jennifer Gray, MS, CCC-SLP; Dave Hammer, MA, CCC-SLP; Mary Kennedy, EdD, CCC-SLP; Pam Marshalla, MA, CCC-SLP; Donna Ridley, M Ed, CCC-SLP; Daniela Rodrigues, MA, CCC-SLP. There were no blind reviewers of this monograph.

ABSTRACT and DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM

In 2002, Duchan wrote an article for The ASHA Leader regarding the history of speech-language pathology and why it is important. Knowing the history of a field is an integral part of understanding the field. Some within the field of speech-language pathology seem to have forgotten the rich supply of oral motor research that exists. This is of great concern, since students and young professionals in the field are frequently not exposed to this information. In recent years some graduate students, recent graduates, and working professionals have stated: (1) oral motor treatment does not work, (2) there is no research on oral motor treatment, and (3) ASHA does not support oral motor treatment. Such statements require serious investigation.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a rich sample of journal literature on the topic of oral motor assessment and treatment, discuss the trends within the literature, and suggest further research needed in the area. A topical bibliography containing articles from journals and selected papers (many with peer review) on oral motor assessment and treatment and related topics resulted from the study. Items were placed within the categories of the topical bibliography based on apparent relatedness to the topic. Some bibliography items were listed under more than one topic. The topical bibliography will assist speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, and others in understanding the current state of oral motor literature and future research needs.

Key Words: oral motor, oral-motor, oromotor, oro-motor

METHOD

In order to find the history of oral motor research, a survey of the many articles written on oral motor assessment and treatment was conducted. A previous ASHA (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association) "Building Blocks Module" on oral motor, feeding, swallowing, and respiratory-phonatory assessment and treatment served as a starting point for this study (1990). After that, numerous other resources (books and journal articles) on feeding, motor speech, and related topics were used.

A search was also conducted using PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. The terms "oral motor," "oral-motor," "oro-motor," and "oromotor" were used in the search. As of November 7, 2007, PubMed had 4409 citations with the term "oral motor," 398 citations with the term "oral-motor," 124 citations with the term "oromotor," and seven citations with the term "oro-motor."

Citations from PubMed November 7, 2007

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The subtopic areas for the survey were chosen based on definitions of "oral motor" from David W. Hammer, MA, CCC-SLP and Pamela Marshala, MA, CCC-SLP. According to Hammer (2007) the term "oral motor" is defined as "having to do with movements and placements of the oral structures such as the tongue, lips, palate, and teeth." In his work with apraxia of speech in children, Hammer defines his oral motor strategies as "speech therapy... techniques which draw the child's attention and effort to the oral musculature/articulators while simultaneously engaging the child in speech production practice." According to Marshalla (2004, p. 10), "oral-motor therapy ... can be defined as the process of facilitating improved oral (jaw, lip, tongue) movements." Based on these definitions, the following areas were included in the survey of the literature on oral motor assessment and treatment:

  • Oral Motor Development
  • Oral Motor Function
  • Respiration (as it relates to oral motor function)
  • Oral Motor Disorders (pediatric)
  • Oral Motor Disorders (adult)
  • Sensory Awareness and Discrimination/Sensory-Motor Facilitation
  • Feeding, Eating, and Drinking (pediatric)
  • Feeding, Eating, and Drinking (adult)
  • Oral Activities and Exercises (related to oral motor function)
  • Myofunctional Therapy
  • Swallowing (pediatric - oral phase)
  • Swallowing (adult - oral phase)
  • Motor Speech (pediatric)
  • Motor Speech (adult)

The definitions by Hammer (2007) and Marshalla (2004) along with the topics listed here may help the field of speech-language pathology develop a "working" or "operational" definition of the term "oral motor." See the Discussion section of this article for some suggestions on how to approach this task.

RESULTS

The results of the survey are listed in an extensive Appendix after the Discussion and Reference sections of the article.

DISCUSSION

In reviewing the journal articles found in the Appendix, the terms "oral motor" and "oral-motor" were used most frequently, while the terms "oromotor" and "oro-motor" were found less often. Some form of the term "oral motor" appeared in the 1980s in the journal literature as a way of discussing mouth movement related to feeding and motor speech (Alexander, 1987; Morris, 1989). It has been used since that time to discuss development, function, and disorders related to mouth movement. The term was found frequently in the literature on feeding and swallowing; although, it also appeared in literature on motor speech. For example, a recent technical report from ASHA (2007) entitled Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Ad Hoc Committee on Apraxia of Speech in Children used the term "Oral-Motor Development" as a subtopic under the topic of "Motor Control."

There is an overwhelming amount of research in the journal literature related to the topic of oral motor assessment and treatment. A significant number of articles were found for every subtopic selected. In fact, there were so many articles related to the topic or subtopics that the author decided to continue the search at a later date to develop future articles.

It is interesting to note that many of the articles were published outside of the field of speech-language pathology. There were numerous articles published in the fields of medicine, dentistry, psychology, nutrition, and occupational therapy. Another survey of the literature could take a closer look at other fields conducting research and contributions made.

The current claims that oral motor treatment does not work, that there is no research on oral motor treatment, and that ASHA does not support oral motor treatment, seem to be unfounded based on the survey of the literature. Perhaps the field of speech-language pathology needs to look at the origins of such claims and the theoretical and clinical data provided for their perpetuation. The following hypotheses might be tested to help reveal the bases of these claims:

  • The field is focused on language and not speech or feeding.
  • Most of the recent studies in the field have been related to language and not the motor aspects of speech or feeding.
  • Recently, there have been far fewer studies on all motor related disorders in the field. This includes voice, fluency, motor speech, and the oral phase of swallowing.
  • The field does not have enough PhDs, and many university faculty members are not studying the motor aspects of speech and feeding.
  • While ASHA has projects like NOMS (National Outcomes Measurement System), very few clinicians are participating in clinical research.

In a brief survey of 117 articles from the American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP) from February 2004 until August 2007, there were eight articles related to motor speech, five articles related to phonology, 14 articles related to fluency, and four related to voice. According to the 2008 ASHA Marketing Planner, 78 percent of speech-language pathologists treat articulation and phonological disorders, 64 percent treat motor speech disorders, 50 percent treat fluency disorders, 30 percent treat dysphagia, 11 percent treat myofunctional disorders, and 31 percent treat voice and resonance disorders. These statistics reveal that speech-language pathologists treat a large numbers of clients with motor disorders. Colleagues in the fields of occupational therapy and physical therapy receive a motor-based training program in order to work with motor disorders in the body. This does not seem to be occurring in the field of speech-language pathology at this time.

It is understandable that the field of speech-language pathology has moved toward the study of language. The study of language is a relatively recent addition to the field. A "History of ASHA Membership and Certification Requirements" shows the addition of language assessment and treatment requirements in graduate programs beginning in 1965 (The ASHA Leader Online, 2007). This has been a vast undertaking. According to the 2008 ASHA Marketing Planner, 47 percent of speech-language pathologists treat individuals with specific language impairment.

Percentage of Articles in AJSLP vs Percentage of Therapists in Treatment Areas

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University training programs in speech-language pathology understandably struggle to teach all that students need to know as the field has continued to expand over time. However, it is a concern that graduate students may not be systematically learning from the wealth of existing oral motor information. The research itself is scattered (i.e., many different journals, many different fields). The exceptions are dysphagia and orofacial myology, which have their own journals and special interest groups.According to Annual Counts of ASHA Membership and Affiliation (Year-end 2006), only four percent of the membership and affiliates had a PhD and only one percent had another type of doctorate. Ninety-three percent of the membership and affiliates have Master's degrees. Regarding primary employment function, 81 percent of the membership and affiliates were clinical service providers and only one percent were researchers. These statistics do not bode well for those within the field who call for research to support applied treatment techniques.

ASHA Membership Year-End 2006

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Recommendations to resolve the concerns discussed in this paper follow. Consider:

  • A survey of graduate students and recent graduates of university program as well as other practicing clinicians to determine their understanding and knowledge of oral motor assessment and treatment. This survey would target areas based on a complete definition of oral motor treatment, "beyond non-speech oral exercise only" (e.g., Hodge, Salonka, & Kollias, 2005; Lof & Watson, 2004, 2008).
  • The formation of an ASHA Ad Hoc Committee to define the role of the speech-language pathologist and the knowledge and skills needed by the speech-language pathologist in the variety of areas that encompass oral motor assessment and treatment (See ASHA documents on orofacial myofunctional disorders, dysphagia, and childhood apraxia of speech listed in reference section). It is suggested that an Ad Hoc Committee include both researchers and working clinicians with both PhD and Master's levels of education.
  • The development of graduate level and continuing education courses and curriculums based on the vast amount of oral motor literature that currently exists.
  • A survey of university faculty willing to conduct research on oral motor topics (e.g., feeding and motor speech).
  • ASHA support in setting up clinical research with interested clinicians (e.g., NOMS).
  • The establishment of teams of researchers and working clinicians to complete needed peer-reviewed efficacy research on the use of oral motor treatment.

 

REFERENCES

  • Alexander, R. (1987). Oral-motor treatment for infants and young children with cerebral palsy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1). 87-100.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1990). Issues in oral motor, feeding, swallowing, and respiratory-phonatory assessment and intervention. [A Building Blocks Module].
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1990). Skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing services to dysphagic patients/clients, Asha, 32 (Suppl. 2), 7-12.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1991). The role of the speech-language pathologist in management of oral myofunctional disorders, Asha, 33 (Suppl. 5), 7.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1993). Orofacial myofunctional disorders: Knowledge and skills. Asha, 35, (Suppl. 10), 21-23.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (Year-end 2006). Annual Counts of the ASHA Membership and Affiliation. [ASHA's Surveys and Information Team].
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical report].
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). History of ASHA membership and certification requirements. The ASHA Leader Online.
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). 2008 ASHA Marketing Planner.
  • Bahr, D. C. (2001). Oral motor assessment and treatment: Ages and stages. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Duchan, J. F. (2002). What do you know about the history of speech-language pathology? And why is it important? The ASHA Leader, 7(23), 4-5, 29.
  • Groher, M. E. (Ed.). (1997). Dysphagia: Diagnosis and management, (3rd ed). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Hammer, D. (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech: New perspectives on assessment and treatment. Las Vegas, NV: The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association (workshop).
  • Hodge, M., Salonka, R., & Kollias, S. (2005, November). Use of Nonspeech oral-motor exercises in children's speech therapy. San Diego, CA: Annual meeting of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
  • Lof, G. L., & Watson, M. (2004, November). Speech-language pathologist's use of nonspeech oral-motor drills: National survey results. Philadelphia, PA: Poster presented at annual meeting of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
  • Lof, G. L., & Watson, M. (2008). A nationwide survey of non-speech oral motor exercise use: Implications for evidence-based practice. Language, Speech, and Hearing in Schools (in press).
  • Marshalla, P. (2004). Oral-Motor techniques in articulation & phonological therapy. Mill Creek, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
  • Morris, S. E. (1989). Development of oral-motor skills in the neurologically impaired child receiving non-oral feedings. Dysphagia, 3(3). 135-154.
  • Oetter, P., Richer, E. W., & Frick, S. M. (1995). M.O.R.E.: Integrating the mouth with sensory and postural functions (2nd ed.). Hugo, MN: PDP Press.
  • PubMed. A service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.
  • Robin, D. A., Yorkston, K. M., & Beukelman, D. R. (Eds.). (1996). Disorders of motor speech: Assessment, treatment, and clinical characterization. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2005). Assessment and treatment of the jaw: Putting it all together: Sensory, feeding, and speech. United States: Talk Tools.

 

APPENDIX


ORAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

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  • Ansel, B. M., Windsor, J., & Stark, R. E. (1992). Oral volitional movements in children: An approach to assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 1-13.
  • Archambault, M., Millen, K., & Gisel, E. (1991). Effect of bite size on eating development in normal children 6 months to 2 years of age. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 10(4), 29-47.
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  • Bahr, D. C. (2003). Typical versus atypical oral motor function in the pediatric population: Beyond the checklist. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13, 12(1), 4-12.
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  • Bosma, J. F. (1985). Postnatal ontogeny of performances of the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 131, S10.
  • Bosma, J. F. (1986). Development of feeding. The Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 5, 210.
  • Boysson-Bardies, B. D., & Vihman, M. M. (1991). Adaptation to language: Evidence from babbling and first words in four languages. Language, 67, 297-319.
  • Braun, M. A., & Palmer, M. M. (1986). A pilot study of oral-motor dysfunction in "at-risk" infants. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 5 (4), 13-25.
  • Bu'Lock, F., Woolridge, M., & Baum, J. (1990). Development of co-ordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing: Ultrasound study of term and preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 669-678.
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  • Erenberg, A., Smith, W. L., Nowak, A. J., et al. (1986). Evaluation of sucking in the breast-fed infant by ultrasonography. Pediatric Research, 20, 409a.
  • Field, T. (1990). Alleviating stress in newborn infants in the intensive care unit. Clinics in Perinatology, 17(1), 1-9.
  • Field, T. (1995). Massage therapy for infants and children. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 16(2), 105-111.
  • Field, T. (1998). Massage therapy effects. American Psychology, 53(12), 1270-1281.
  • Fletcher, S. (1970). Processes and maturation of mastication and deglutition. ASHA Reports, 5, 92-105.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1988). Chewing cycles in 2- to 8-year-old normal children : A developmental profile, The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 40.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1988). Development of oral side preference during chewing and its relation to hand preference in normal 2- to 8-year-old children. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 378.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1991). Effect of food texture on development of chewing in children 6 months to 2 years of age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 69.
  • Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., Ruark, J. L., Rodda, P. R., Morvee, W. T., & Van Witzenburg, M. J. (1997). Development of chewing in children from 12 to 48 months: Longitudinal study of EMG patterns. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77, 2704-2716.
  • Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., Higashikawa, M., & Steeve, R. W. (2000). The sequential development of jaw and lip control for speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 66-79.
  • Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., & Reilly, K. J. (2002). The physiologic development of speech motor control: Lip and jaw coordination. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 239-255.
  • Hannam, A., & McMillan, A. (1994). Internal organization of human jaw muscles. Critical Review in Oral Biology and Medicine, 5, 55-89.
  • Hanson, M., & Cohen, M. (1973). Effects of form and function on swallowing and the developing dentition. American Journal of Orthodontics, 64, 63-82.
  • Illingworth, R. S., & Lister, J. (1964). The critical or sensitive period, with special reference to certain feeding problems in infants and children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 65(6), 839-848.
  • Iverson, J. M., Hall, A. J., Nickel, L., & Wozniak, R. H. (2007). The relationship between reduplicated babble onset and laterality in infant rhythmic arm movements. Brain and Language, 101(3), 198-207.
  • Jain, L., Sivieri, E., Abbasi, S., & Bhutani, V. K. (1987). Energetics and mechanics of nutritive sucking in the preterm and term neonate. Journal of Pediatrics, 111, 894-898.
  • Lawrence, R. (Ed.). (1987). Breastfeeding. Clinics in Perinatology, 14(1).
  • Lau, C., & Schanler, R. J. (1996). Oral motor function in the neonate. Neonatal Gastroenterology, 23(2), 161-178.
  • Maller, O, & Turner, R. E. (1973). Taste in acceptance of sugars in human infants. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 84, 496-501.
  • Marshalla, P. R. (1985). The role of reflexes in oral-motor learning: Techniques for improved articulation. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 317-336.
  • Matthew, O. P., & Bhatia, J. (1989). Sucking and breathing patterns during breast- and bottle-feeding in term neonates. American Journal of Disease in Children, 143, 588-592.
  • Mizuno, K., & Ueda, A. (2001). Development of sucking behavior in infants who have not been fed for 2 months after birth. Pediatrics International, 43(3). 251-255.
  • Moore, C. A., & Ruark, J. L. (1996). Does speech emerge from earlier appearing oral motor behaviors? Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 1034-1047.
  • Morris, S. E. (1985). Developmental implications for the management of feeding problems in neurologically impaired infants. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 293-315.
  • Morris, S. E. (1989). Development of oral-motor skills in the neurologically impaired child receiving non-oral feedings. Dysphagia, 3(3). 135-154.
  • Ogg, M. A. (1975). Oral-pharyngeal development and evaluation. Physical Therapy, 55, 235-241.
  • Oller, D. (1978). Infant vocalization and the development of speech. Allied Health and Behavioral Sciences, 1(4), 532-549.
  • Oller, D. K., & Eilers, R. E. (1988). The role of audition in infant babbling. Child Development, 59, 441-446.
  • Oller, D. K., Eilers, R. E., Neal, R., & Schwartz, H. (1999). Precursors to speech in infancy: The prediction of speech and language disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders, 32, 223-245.
  • Oller, D., Wieman, L., Doyle, W., & Ross, C. (1975). Infant babbling and speech. Journal of Child Language, 3, 1-11.
  • Page, D. C. (1999). The new dental-medical renaissance: Medically efficacious functional jaw orthopedics. The Functional Orthodontist: A Journal of Functional Jaw Orthopedics, 16(1), 16-25.
  • Reilly, S., Skuse, D., Mathisen, M. & Wolke, D. (1995). The objective rating of oral-motor functions during feeding. Dysphagia, 10, 177-191.
  • Robbins, J., & Klee, T. (1987). Clinical assessment of orophayngeal motor development in young children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 271-277.
  • Ruark, J. L., & Moore, C. A. (1997). Coordination of lip muscle activity by 2-year-old children during speech and nonspeech tasks. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1373-1385.
  • Rybski, D. A., Almli, R. C., & Gisel, E. G. (1984). Sucking behaviours of normal 3-day-old female neonates during a 24-hour period. Developmental psychobiology, 17, 70.
  • Rybski, D. A., & Gisel, E. G. (1984). Optimal and sub-optimal feeding behaviors of neonates. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 4, 37.
  • Sameroff, A. J. (1968). The components of sucking in the human newborn. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 6, 607-623.
  • Sarnat, H. B. (1978). Olfactory reflexes in the newborn infant. The Journal of Pediatrics, 92, 624.
  • Schaal, B. (1988). Olfaction in infants and children in developmental and functional perspectives. Chemical Senses, 13, 145.
  • Shapiro, B. L., Redman, R. S., Gorlin, R. J. (1963). Measurements of normal and reportedly malformed palatal vaults: I. Normal adult measurements. Journal of Dental Research, 42, 1039.
  • Schwartz, J., Niman, C., & Gisel, E. (1984). Tongue movements in normal preschool children during eating. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 38 (2), 87-93.
  • Selley, W. G., Ellis, R. E., Flack, F. C., & Brooks, W. A. (1990). Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing in the newborn: Its relationship to infant feeding and normal development. The British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 25(3), 311-327.
  • Smith, A., Weber, C. M., Newton, J., & Denny, M. (1991). Developmental and age-related changes in reflexes of the human jaw-closing system. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 81, 118-128.
  • Sochaniwskyj, A., Koheil, R., Baablich, K., Milner, M., & Kenny, D. (1986). Oral motor functioning, frequency of swallowing, and drooling in normal children and in children with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 866-874.
  • Stark, R. (1978). Features of infant sounds: The emergence of cooing. Journal of Child Language, 5, 1-12.
  • Stolovitz, P., & Gisel, E. G. (1991). Circumoral movements in response to three different food textures in children six months to two years of age. Dysphagia, 6, 17.
  • Sullivan, R. M., Taborski-Barba, S., Mendoza, R., Itano, A., Leon, M., Cotman, C.W., Payne, T. F., & Lott, I. (1991). Olfactory classical conditioning in neonates. Pediatrics, 87(4), 511-518.
  • Tucker, J. A. (1985). Perspectives on the development of the air and food passages. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 131, S7-S9.
  • Walsh, B., & Smith, A. (2002). Articulatory movements in adolescents: Evidence of the protracted development of speech motor control processes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1119-1133.
  • Weber, F. M., Woolridge, W., & Baum, J. D. (1986). An ultrasonographic study of the organization of sucking and swallowing by newborn infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 19-24.
  • Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (1998). Diadochokinetic skills: Normal and atypical performance in children aged 3-5 years. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 33 (Suppl.), 481-486.
  • Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (2000). Rate, accuracy, and consistency: Diadochokinetic performance of young normally developing children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 14, 267-293.
  • Wolff, P. H. (1968). The serial organization of sucking in the young infant. Pediatrics, 42, 943-955.
  • Ziev, M. S. R. (1999). Earliest intervention: Speech-Language pathology services in the neonatal intensive care unit. Asha, 41(3), 32-36.


ORAL MOTOR FUNCTION

  • Ansel, B. M., Windsor, J., & Stark, R. E. (1992). Oral volitional movements in children: An approach to assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 1-13.
  • Bahr, D. C. (2003). Typical versus atypical oral motor function in the pediatric population: Beyond the checklist. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13, 12(1), 4-12.
  • Barlow, S. M., & Abbs. J. H. (1983). Force transducers for the evaluation of labial, lingual, and mandibular function in dysarthria, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 26, 616-621.
  • Bateson, E., & Ostry, D. (1995). An analysis of the dimensionality of jaw movement in speech. Journal of Phonetics, 23, 101-117.
  • Beckman, D., Neal, C., Phirsichbaum, J., Stratton, L., Taylor, V., & Ratusnik, D. (2004). Range of movement and strength in oral motor therapy: A retrospective study. Florida Journal of Communication Disorders, 21, 7-14.
  • Bisch, E. M., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Kahrilas, P. J., & Lazarus, C. L. (1994). Pharyngeal effects of bolus volume, viscosity, and temperature in patients with dysphagia resulting from neurologic impairment and normal subjects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37(5), 1041-1059.
  • Bosma, J. F., Hepburn, L. G. Josell, S. D., & Baker, K. (1990). Ultrasound demonstration of tongue motions during suckle feeding. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32(3), 223-229.
  • Clark, G. T., & Carter, M. C. (1985). Electromyographic study of human jaw closing muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery at various isometric force levels. Archives of Oral Biology, 30, 563-569.
  • Clark, H. M., Robin, D. A., McCullagh, G., & Schmidt, R. A. (2001). Motor control in children and adults during a non-speech oral task. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 1015-1025.
  • Edwards, J. (1985). Contextual effects on lingual-mandibular coordination. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78, 1944-1948.
  • Ekberg, O., & Nylander, G. (1982). Cineradiography of the pharyngeal stage of deglutition in 150 individuals without dysphagia. British Journal of Radiology, 55, 253-257.
  • Forrest, K., Weismer, M., & Turner, G. S. (1989). Kinematic, acoustic, and perceptual analyses of connected speech produced by parkinsonian and normal geriatric adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85, 2608-2622.
  • Fucile, S., Wright, P. M., Chan, I., Yee, S., Langlais, M., & Gisel, E. G. (1998). Functional oral-motor skills: Do they change with age? Dysphagia, 13, 195-201.
  • Gay, T. (1974). Jaw movements during speech: A cinefluorographic investigation. Haskins Laboratories. Status Report on Speech Research, 39140, 219-229.
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  • Gracco, V. L., & Abbs, J. H. (1986). Variant and invariant characteristics of speech movements. Experimental Brain Research, 65, 156-166.
  • Gracco, V. L., & Lofqvist, A. (1994). Speech motor coordination and control: Evidence from lip, jaw, and laryngeal movements. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 6585-6597.
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RESPIRATION

  • Bu'Lock, F., Woolridge, M., & Baum, J. (1990). Development of co-ordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing: Ultrasound study of term and preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 669-678.
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  • Matthew, O. P., & Bhatia, J. (1989). Sucking and breathing patterns during breast- and bottle-feeding in term neonates. American Journal of Disease in Children, 143, 588-592.
  • Matthews, C. L., (1994). Supporting suck-swallow-breath coordination during nipple feeding. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48(6). 561-562.
  • Moore, C. A., Caulfield, T. J., & Green J. R. (2001). Relative kinematics of the rib cage and abdomen during speech and nonspeech behaviors of 15-month-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 80-94.
  • Mortola, J., Fisher, J., Smith, B., Fox, G., & Weeks, S. (1982). Dynamics of breathing in infants. Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, 1209-1215.
  • Paludetto, A. R., Robertson, S. S., & Martin, R. J. (1986). Interaction between non-nutritive sucking and respiration in preterm infants. Biology of the Neonate, 49, 198.
  • Polgar, G., & Weng, T. (1979). The functional development of the respiratory system. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 120, 625-695.
  • Prechi, H., Fargel, J., Weinmann, H., & Bakker, H. (1979). Postures, motility and respiration of low-risk pre-term infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 21, 3-27.
  • Selley, W. G., Ellis, R. E., Flack, F. C., & Brooks, W. A. (1990). Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing in the newborn: Its relationship to infant feeding and normal development. The British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 25(3), 311-327.
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  • Stern, L. (Ed.). (1987). The respiratory system in the newborn. Clinics in Perinatology, 14(3).
  • Till, J. A., & Goff, A. M. (1986, November). Task variables affecting temporal structure and respiratory patterns in speech, Asha, 28, 102.
  • Tzelepis, G. E., McCool, F. D., Friedman, J. H., & Hoppin, F. G., Jr. (1988). Respiratory muscle dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 138, 266-271.
  • Tucker, J. A. (1985). Perspectives on the development of the air and food passages. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 131, S7-S9.
  • Wilson, S. L., Thach, B. T., Brouillette, R. T., Abu-Osba, Y. K. (1981). Coordination of breathing and swallowing. Journal of Applied Physiology, 50(4), 851-858.


ORAL MOTOR DISORDERS (PEDIATRIC)

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  • Shapiro, B. L., Redman, R. S., Gorlin, R. J. (1963). Measurements of normal and reportedly malformed palatal vaults: I. Normal adult measurements. Journal of Dental Research, 42, 1039.
  • Sivit, C. (1990). The role of the pediatric radiologist in the evaluation of oral and pharyngeal dysphagia. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 4, 103.
  • Smith, A., Weber, C. M., Newton, J., & Denny, M. (1991). Developmental and age-related changes in reflexes of the human jaw-closing system. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 81, 118-128.
  • Sochaniwskyj, A., Koheil, R., Baablich, K., Milner, M., & Kenny, D. (1986). Oral motor functioning, frequency of swallowing, and drooling in normal children and in children with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 866-874.
  • Spender, Q., Dennis, J., Stein, A., Cave, D., Percy, E., & Reilly, S. (1995). Impaired oral-motor function in children with Down's syndrome: A study of three twin pairs. European Journal of Disorder of Communication, 30, 77-87.
  • Spender, Q., Stein, A., Dennis, J., Reilly, S., Percy, E., & Cave, D. (1996). An exploration of feeding difficulties in children with Down syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 681-694.
  • Stoel-Gammon, C. (1997). Phonological development in Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 3, 300-306.
  • Strand, E. (1995). Treatment of motor speech disorders in children. Seminars in Speech and Language, 16, 126-139.
  • Sweeney, J. (Ed.). (1986). The high-risk neonate: Developmental therapy perspectives (Special Issue). Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 6 (3&4).
  • Takagi, Y, Irwin, J. V., & Bosma, J. F. (1966). Prone feeding of infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. The Cleft Palate Journal, 3, 232.
  • Thoonen, G., Maassen, B., Gabreels, F., & Schreuder, R. (1999). Validity of maximum performance tasks to diagnose motor speech disorders in children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 13, 1-23.
  • Verrastro, A. P., Stefani, F. M., Rodrigues, C. R., & Wanderly, M. T. (2006). Occlusal and orofacial myofunctional evaluation in children with primary dentition, anterior open bite and pacifier sucking habit. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 7-21.
  • Widstrom, A. M., Marchini, G., Matthiesen, A. S., Werner, S., Winberg, J., & Uvnas-Moberg, K. (1988). Non-nutritive sucking in tube fed preterm infants: Effects on gastric motility and gastric contents of somatostatin. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 7(4), 517-523.
  • Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (1998). Diadochokinetic skills: Normal and atypical performance in children aged 3-5 years. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 33 (Suppl.), 481-486.
  • Yarrom, R., Sagher, U., Havivi, Y., Peled, I. J., Wexler, M. R. (1986). Myofibers in tongues of Down syndrome. Journal of Neurological Science, 73, 279-287.
  • Zeeman, S., Nowaczyk, M. J. M., Teshima, I., Roberts, W., Oram Cardy, J., Brian, J., et al. (2006). Speech and language impairment and oromotor dyspraxia due to deletion of 7q31 that involves FOXP2. American Journal of Human Genetics, 140(A), 509-514.
  • Ziev, M. S. R. (1999). Earliest intervention: Speech-Language pathology services in the neonatal intensive care unit. Asha, 41(3), 32-36.


ORAL MOTOR DISORDERS (ADULT)

  • Abbs, J. H., Hartman, D. E., & Vishwanat, B. (1987). Orofacial motor control impairment in Parkinson's disease. Neurology, 37, 394-398.
  • Barry, R. M. (1995). A comparative study of the relationship between dysarthria and verbal dyspraxia in adults and children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 9, 311-312.
  • Bisch, E. M., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Kahrilas, P. J., & Lazarus, C. L. (1994). Pharyngeal effects of bolus volume, viscosity, and temperature in patients with dysphagia resulting from neurologic impairment and normal subjects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37(5), 1041-1059.
  • Canter, G. J. (1965). Speech characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease: III. Articulation, diadochokinesis, and over-all speech adequacy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 30, 217-224.
  • Connor, N. P., Ludlow, C. L., & Schulz, G. M. (1989). Stop consonant production in insolated and repeated syllables in Parkinson's disease, Neuropsychologia, 27, 829-838.
  • Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1969). Differential diagnostic patterns of dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12, 246-269.
  • Duffy, J. R., Peach, R. K., & Strand, E. A. (2007). Progressive apraxia of speech as a sign of motor neuron disease. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3). 198-208.
  • Dworkin, J. P. (1996). Bite block therapy of oromandibular dystonia. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 4, 47-56.
  • Dworkin, J. P., & Aronson, A. E. (1986). Tongue strength and alternate motion rates in normal and dysarthric subjects. Journal of Communication Disorders, 19, 115-132.
  • Dworkin, J. P., Aronson, A. E., & Mulder, D. W. (1980). Tongue strength in normal subjects and dysarthric patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23, 828-837.
  • Enderby, P., & Crow, E. (1990). Long-term recovery patterns of severe dysarthria following head injury. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 25, 341-354.
  • Forrest, K., Weismer, M., & Turner, G. S. (1989). Kinematic, acoustic, and perceptual analyses of connected speech produced by parkinsonian and normal geriatric adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85, 2608-2622.
  • Fucile, S., Wright, P. M., Chan, I., Yee, S., Langlais, M., & Gisel, E. G. (1998). Functional oral-motor skills: Do they change with age? Dysphagia, 13, 195-201.
  • Gandevia, S. C. (1982). The perception of motor commands or effort during muscular paralysis, Brain, 105, 151-159.
  • Hill, A. J., Theodoros, D. G., Russell, T. G., Cahill, L. M., Ward, E. C., & Clark, K. M. (2006). An internet-based telerehabilitation system for the assessment of motor speech disorders: A pilot study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(1), 45-56.
  • Hustad, K. C. (2006). A closer look at transcription intelligibility for speakers with dysarthria: Evaluation of scoring paradigms and linguistic errors made by listeners. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(3), 268-277.
  • Judd, P., Kenny, D., Koheil, R., Milner, M., & Moran, R. (1989). The multidisciplinary feeding profile: A statistically based protocol for assessment of dependent feeders. Dysphagia, 4(1). 29-34.
  • Keintz, C. K., Bunton, K., & Hoit, J. D. (2007). Influence of visual information on the intelligibility of dysarthric speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3), 222-234.
  • Koller, W., & Kase, S. (1986). Muscle strength testing in Parkinson's disease, European Neurology, 25, 130-133.
  • Larsson , L., & Karlsson, J. (1978) Isometric and dynamic endurance as a function of age and skeletal muscle characteristics. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 104, 129-136.
  • Leung, K. C., Pow, E. H., McMillan, A. S., Wong, M. C., Li, L. S., & Ho, S. L. (2002). Oral perception and oral motor ability in edentulous patients with stroke and Parkinson's disease. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29(6), 497-503.
  • Liss, J. M., Krein-Jones, K., Wszolek, Z. K., & Caviness J. N. (2006). Speech characteristics of patients with pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration and their application to presymptomatic detection in at-risk relatives. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(3), 226-235.
  • Logemann, J. A. (1985). The relationship of speech and swallowing in head and neck surgical patients. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 351-359.
  • Maassen, B. (2002). Issues contrasting adult acquired versus developmental apraxia of speech. Seminars in Speech and Language, 23, 257-266.
  • McHenry, M. A., Minton, J. T., Wilson, R. L., & Post, Y. V. (1994). Intelligibility and nonspeech orofacial strength and force control following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1271-1283.
  • Morrison, E. B., Rigrodsky, S., & Mysak, E. D. (1970). Parkinson's disease: Speech disorder and released infantile oroneuromotor activity. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 13, 655-666.
  • Murray, J. P. (1962). Deglutition in myasthenia gravis. The British Journal of Radiology, 35, 43.
  • Netsell, R., Daniel, B., & Celesia, G. G. (1975). Acceleration and weakness in parkinsonian dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40, 170-078.
  • Palmer, M. F., & Osborn, C. D. (1940). A study of tongue pressures of speech defective and normal speaking individuals. Journal of Speech Disorders, 52, 133-140.
  • Page, D. C. (1999). The new dental-medical renaissance: Medically efficacious functional jaw orthopedics. The Functional Orthodontist: A Journal of Functional Jaw Orthopedics, 16(1), 16-25.
  • Ramsey, W. O. (1986). Suckle facilitation of feeding in selected adult dysphagic persons. Dysphagia, 1, 7.
  • Ray, J. (2006). Orofacial myofunctional deficits in elderly individuals. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 22-31.
  • Robin, D. A., Goel, A., Somodi, L. B., & Luschei, E. S. (1992). Tongue strength and endurance: Relation to highly skilled movements. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1239-1245.
  • Robbins, J. (1985). Swallowing and speech problems in the neurologically impaired adult. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 337-350.
  • Robbins, J. (1992). The impact of oral motor dysfunction on swallowing: From beginning to end. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 55-69.
  • Robbins, J., Kays, S. A., Gangnon, R. E., Hind, J. A., Hewitt, A. L., Gentry, L., R., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(2), 150-158.
  • Rosenbek, J., Lemme, M., Ahern, M., Harris, E., & Wertz, T. (1973). A treatment for apraxia of speech in adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 38, 462-472.
  • Shapiro, B. L., Redman, R. S., Gorlin, R. J. (1963). Measurements of normal and reportedly malformed palatal vaults: I. Normal adult measurements. Journal of Dental Research, 42, 1039.
  • Smith, A., Weber, C. M., Newton, J., & Denny, M. (1991). Developmental and age-related changes in reflexes of the human jaw-closing system. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 81, 118-128.
  • Strand, E. A., Miller, R. M., Yorkston, K. M., & Hillel, A. D. (1996). Management of oral-pharyngeal dysphagia symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dysphagia, 11, 129.
  • Solomon, N. P., & Hixon, T. J. (1993). Speech breathing in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 294-310.
  • Solomon, N. P., Lorell, C. M., Robin, D. A., Rodnitzky, R. L., & Luschei, E., S. (1995). Tongue strength and endurance in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 3, 15-26.
  • Tzelepis, G. E., McCool, F. D., Friedman, J. H., & Hoppin, F. G., Jr. (1988). Respiratory muscle dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 138, 266-271.
  • Wambaugh, J. L., Duffy, J. R., McNeil, M. R., Robin, D. A., & Rogers, M. A. (2006). Treatment guidelines for acquired apraxia of speech: A synthesis and evaluation of the evidence. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14, xv-xxxiii.
  • Wambaugh, J. L., Duffy, J. R., McNeil, M. R., Robin, D. A., & Rogers, M. A. (2006). Treatment guidelines for acquired apraxia of speech: Treatment descriptions and recommendations. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14, xxv-lxvii.
  • Weinberg, B., Christenson, R., Logan, W. Bosma, J., & Wornall, A. (1969). Severe hypoplasia of the tongue. The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 34(2), 157-168.
  • Wood, L. M., Hughes, J., Hayes, K. C., & Wolfe, D. L. (1992). Reliability of labial closure force measurement in normal subjects and patients with CNS disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 252-258.
  • Yanagawa, S., Shindo, M., & Yanagisawa, N. (1990). Muscular weakness in Parkinson's disease. Advances in Neurology, 53, 259-269.


SENSORY AWARENESS AND DISCRIMINATION SENSORY-MOTOR FACILITATION

  • Anderson, G. C., Marks, E.A., & Wahlberg, V. (1986). Kangaroo care for premature infants. The American Journal of Nursing, 86, 807.
  • Alexander, R. (1987). Oral-motor treatment for infants and young children with cerebral palsy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1). 87-100.
  • Ashmead, D. H., Reilly, B. M., & Litpsitt, L. P. (1980). Neonates heart-rate, sucking rhythm, and sucking amplitude as a function of sweet taste. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 29, 264.
  • Axelrod, R. B., & Pearson, J. (1984). Congenital sensory neuropathies: Diagnostic distinction from familial dysautonomia. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 138, 947.
  • Bashir, A., Graham-Jones, F., & Bostwick, R. (1984). A touch cue method of therapy for developmental verbal apraxia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 5, 127-138.
  • Beckman, D., Neal, C., Phirsichbaum, J., Stratton, L., Taylor, V., & Ratusnik, D. (2004). Range of movement and strength in oral motor therapy: A retrospective study. Florida Journal of Communication Disorders, 21, 7-14.
  • Beidler, L. M., & Smallman, R. L. (1965). Renewal of cells within taste buds. Journal of Cellular Biology, 27(2), 263-272.
  • Beratis, S., Kolb, R., Sperling, E., & Stein, R. E. (1981). Development of a child with long-lasting deprivation of oral feeding. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20(1), 53-64.
  • Bernbaum, J. C., Pereira, G. R., Watkins, J. B., & Peckham, G. J. (1983). Nonnutritive sucking during gavage feeding enhances growth and maturation in premature infants. Pediatrics, 71(1), 41-45.
  • Bernstein, I. L. (1978). Learned taste aversions in children receiving chemotherapy. Science, 200, 1302.
  • Bisch, E. M., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Kahrilas, P. J., & Lazarus, C. L. (1994). Pharyngeal effects of bolus volume, viscosity, and temperature in patients with dysphagia resulting from neurologic impairment and normal subjects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37(5), 1041-1059.
  • Bosma, J. (Ed.). (1973). Fourth symposium on oral sensation and perception. (NIH, DHEW Publication No. 73-546). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Brown, G. E., Nordloh, S., & Donowitz, A. J. (1992). Systematic desensitization of oral hypersensitivity in a patient with a closed head injury. Dysphagia, 7, 138-141.
  • Crook, C. K., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1976). Neonatal nutritive sucking: Effects of taste stimulation upon sucking rhythm and heart rate. Child Development, 47, 518-522.
  • Field, T. (1990). Alleviating stress in newborn infants in the intensive care unit. Clinics in Perinatology, 17(1), 1-9.
  • Field, T. (1995). Massage therapy for infants and children. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 16(2), 105-111.
  • Field, T. (1998). Massage therapy effects. American Psychology, 53(12), 1270-1281.
  • Fucile, S., Gisel, E., & Lau, C. (2002). Oral stimulation accelerates the transition from tube to oral feeding in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 141(2), 230-236.
  • Gandevia, S. C. (1982). The perception of motor commands or effort during muscular paralysis. Brain, 105, 151-159.
  • Gatchel, R. J. (1980). Effectiveness of two procedures for reducing dental fear: Group-administered desensitization and group education and discussion. Journal of the American Dental Association, 101, 634-637.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1991). Effect of food texture on development of chewing in children 6 months to 2 years of age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 69.
  • Harris, S. R., & Purdy, A. H. (1987). Drooling and its management in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29, 805.
  • Hirano, K., Hirano, S., & Hayakawa, I. (2004). The role of oral sensorimotor function in masticatory ability. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31(3), 199-205.
  • Klepac, R. K., Hauge, G., Dowling, J. (1982). Treatment of an overactive gag reflex: Two cases. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 141-144.
  • Kumin, L., Von Hagel, K. C., & Bahr, D. C. (2001). An effective oral motor intervention protocol for infants and toddlers with low muscle tone. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 11(3-4), 181-200.
  • Kuhn, C. M., Schanberg, S. M., Field, T., Symanski, R., Zimmerman, E., Scafidi, F., & Roberts, J. (1991). Tactile-kinesthetic stimulation effects on sympathetic and adrenocortical function in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 119(3), 434-440.
  • Lazzara, G. D., Lazarus, C., & Logemann, J. A. (1986). Impact of thermal stimulation on the triggering of the swallowing reflex, Dysphagia, 1, 73.
  • Leeuw, R. D., Colin, E. M., Dunnebier, E. A., & Mirmiran, M. (1991) Physiological effects of kangaroo care in very small preterm infants, Biology of the Neonate, 59(3), 149-155.
  • Leung, K. C., Pow, E. H., McMillan, A. S., Wong, M. C., Li, L. S., & Ho, S. L. (2002). Oral perception and oral motor ability in edentulous patients with stroke and Parkinson's disease. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29(6), 497-503.
  • Lobbezoo, F., Trulsson, M., Jacobs, R., Svensson, P., Caden, S. W., & van Steenberqhe, D. (2002). Topical review: Modulation of trigeminal sensory input in humans: Mechanisms and clinical implications. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 16(1). 9-21.
  • Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Colangelo, L., Lazarus, C., Fujiu, M., & Kahrilas, P. J. (1995). Effects of a sour bolus on oropharyngeal swallowing measures in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38(3), 556-563.
  • Maller, O., & Turner, R. E. (1973). Taste in acceptance of sugars in human infants. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 84, 496-501.
  • Matthews, P. B. C. (1988). Proprioceptors and their contribution to somatosensory mapping: Complex messages require complex processing. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 66, 430-438.
  • Melzack, R., Konrad, K. W., & Dubrovsky, B. (1969). Prolonged changes in central nervous system activity produced by somatic and reticular stimulation. Experimental Neurology, 25, 416-428.
  • Miller, A. J. (1972). Significance of sensory inflow to the swallowing reflex. Brain Research, 43, 147-159.
  • Ong, D., & Stone, M. (1998). Three-dimensional vocal tract shapes in /r/ and /l/: A study of MRI, ultrasound, electropalatography, and acoustics. Phonoscope, 1, 1-13.
  • Richmond, G, & Bell, J. C. (1983). Analysis of a treatment package to reduce a handmouthing stereotypy. Behavior Therapy, 14, 576-581.
  • Ringel, R. L., & Ewanowski, S. J. (1965). Oral perception. I. Two-point discrimination. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 8(4), 389-398.
  • Ringel, R. L., & Fletcher, H. M. (1967). Oral perception. 3. Texture discrimination. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 10(3), 642-649.
  • Rocha, A. D., Moreira, M. E. L., Pimenta, H. P., Ramos, J. R. M , & Lucena, S. L. A. (2007). Randomized study of the efficacy of sensory-motor-oral stimulation and non-nutritive sucking in very low birthweight infants. Early Human Development, 83(6), 385-388.
  • Rood, M. S. (1954). Neurophysiological reactions as a basis for physical therapy. Physical Therapy Review, 34, 444-449.
  • Rosenbek, J. C., Robbins, J., Fishback, B., & Levine, R. L. (1991). Effect of thermal application on dysphagia after stroke. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34(6), 1257-1268.
  • Sarnat, H. B. (1978). Olfactory reflexes in the newborn infant. The Journal of Pediatrics, 92, 624.
  • Schaal, B. (1988). Olfaction in infants and children in developmental and functional perspectives. Chemical Senses, 13, 145.
  • Scheerer, C. R. (1992). Perspectives on an oral motor activity: The use of rubber tubing as a "chewy." The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46, 344-352.
  • Sochaniwskyj, A., Koheil, R., Baablich, K., Milner, M., & Kenny, D. (1986). Oral motor functioning, frequency of swallowing, and drooling in normal children and in children with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 866-874.
  • Stolovitz, P., & Gisel, E. G. (1991). Circumoral movements in response to three different food textures in children six months to two years of age. Dysphagia, 6, 17.
  • Sullivan, R. M., Taborski-Barba, S., Mendoza, R., Itano, A., Leon, M., Cotman, C.W., Payne, T. F., & Lott, I. (1991). Olfactory classical conditioning in neonates. Pediatrics, 87(4), 511-518.
  • Wheeden, A., Scafidi, F. A., Field, T., Ironson, G., Valdeon, C., & Bandstra, E. (1993). Massage effects on cocaine-exposed preterm neonates. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 14(5), 318-322.


FEEDING/EATING/DRINKING (PEDIATRIC)

  • Alexander, R. (1987). Oral-motor treatment for infants and young children with cerebral palsy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1). 87-100.
  • Anderson, D. (1963). Development of function in mastication. Journal of Dental Research Supplement, 42, 381-384.
  • Anderson, G. C., Marks, E.A., & Wahlberg, V. (1986). Kangaroo care for premature infants. The American Journal of Nursing, 86, 807.
  • Archambault, M., Millen, K., & Gisel, E. (1991). Effect of bite size on eating development in normal children 6 months to 2 years of age. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 10(4), 29-47.
  • Ardran, G., & Kemp, F. (1970). Some important factors in the assessment of oropharyngeal function. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 12, 158-166.
  • Ashmead, D. H., Reilly, B. M., & Litpsitt, L. P. (1980). Neonates heart-rate, sucking rhythm, and sucking amplitude as a function of sweet taste. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 29, 264.
  • Bazyk, S. (1990). Factors associated with the transition to oral feeding in infants fed by nasogastric tubes. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44(12), 1070-1078.
  • Beidler, L. M., & Smallman, R. L. (1965). Renewal of cells within taste buds. Journal of Cellular Biology, 27(2), 263-272.
  • Beratis, S., Kolb, R., Sperling, E., & Stein, R. E. (1981). Development of a child with long-lasting deprivation of oral feeding. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20(1), 53-64.
  • Bernbaum, J. C., Pereira, G. R., Watkins, J. B., & Peckham, G. J. (1983). Nonnutritive sucking during gavage feeding enhances growth and maturation in premature infants. Pediatrics, 71(1), 41-45.
  • Bernstein, I. L. (1978). Learned taste aversions in children receiving chemotherapy. Science, 200, 1302.
  • Blass, E. M., & Teicher, M. H. (1980). Suckling. Science, 210, 15.
  • Bosma, J. F. (1986). Development of feeding. The Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 5, 210.
  • Bosma, J. F., Hepburn, L. G. Josell, S. D., & Baker, K. (1990). Ultrasound demonstration of tongue motions during suckle feeding. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32(3), 223-229.
  • Braun, M. A., & Palmer, M. M. (1986). A pilot study of oral-motor dysfunction in "at-risk" infants. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 5(4), 13-25.
  • Bu'Lock, F., Woolridge, M., & Baum, J. (1990). Development of co-ordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing: Ultrasound study of term and preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 669-678.
  • Burns, Y., Rogers, Y., Neil, M., Brazier, K., Croker, A., Behnke, L., & Tudehope, D. (1987). Development of oral function in pre-term infants. Physiotherapy Practice, 3, 168-178.
  • Casaer, P., Daniels, H. , Devileger, H., DeCock, P., & Eggermont, E. (1982). Feeding behaviour in preterm neonates. Early Human Development, 7(4), 331-346.
  • Clawson, E. P., Palinski, K. S., & Elliott, C. A. (2006). Outcome on intensive oral motor and behavioural interventions for feeding difficulties in three children with Goldenhar syndrome. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 9(1), 65-75.
  • Crook, C. K., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1976). Neonatal nutritive sucking: Effects of taste stimulation upon sucking rhythm and heart rate. Child Development, 47, 518-522.
  • Colley, J. R. T., & Creamer, B. (1958). Suckling and swallowing in infants. British Medical Journal, 12, 422.
  • Daniels, H. Casaer, P. Devileger, H. & Eggermont, E. (1986). Mechanisms of feeding efficiency in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 5(4), 593-596.
  • Ellison, S. L., Vidyasagar, D., & Anderson, G. C. (1979). Sucking in the newborn infant during the first hour of life. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 24, 18-25.
  • Erenberg, A., Smith, W. L., Nowak, A. J., et al. (1986). Evaluation of sucking in the breast-fed infant by ultrasonography. Pediatric Research, 20, 409a.
  • Evans, T. J., & Davies, D. P. (1977). Failure to thrive at the breast: An old problem revisited. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 52, 974.
  • Fee, M., Charney, E., & Robertson, W. (1988). Nutritional assessment of the young child with cerebral palsy. Infants and Young Children, 1(1). 33-40.
  • Field, T., Ignaroff, E., Stringer, S., Brennan, J., Greenberg, R., Widmayer, S., & Anderson, G. (1982). Nonnutritive sucking during tube feedings: Effects on preterm neonates in an intensive care unit. Pediatrics, 70(3), 381-384.
  • Fletcher, S. (1970). Processes and maturation of mastication and deglutition. ASHA Reports, 5, 92-105.
  • Fucile, S., Gisel, E., & Lau, C. (2002). Oral stimulation accelerates the transition from tube to oral feeding in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 141(2), 230-236.
  • Fucile, S., Wright, P. M., Chan, I., Yee, S., Langlais, M., & Gisel, E. G. (1998). Functional oral-motor skills: Do they change with age? Dysphagia, 13, 195-201.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1988). Chewing cycles in 2- to 8-year-old normal children : A developmental profile. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 40.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1988). Development of oral side preference during chewing and its relation to hand preference in normal 2- to 8-year-old children. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 378.
  • Gisel, E. G. (1991). Effect of food texture on development of chewing in children 6 months to 2 years of age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 69.
  • Gisel, E. G., & Pollock, N. A. (1988). Eating skills: A review of current assessment practices. Occupational Therapy Journal Research, 8, 38.
  • Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., Ruark, J. L., Rodda, P. R., Morvee, W. T., & Van Witzenburg, M. J. (1997). Development of chewing in children from 12 to 48 months: Longitudinal study of EMG patterns. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77, 2704-2716.
  • Gryboski, J. D. (1969). Suck and swallow in the premature infant. Pediatrics, 43, 96.
  • Hanson, M., & Cohen, M. (1973). Effects of form and function on swallowing and the developing dentition. American Journal of Orthodontics, 64, 63-82.
  • Hirano, K., Hirano, S., & Hayakawa, I. (2004). The role of oral sensorimotor function in masticatory ability. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31(3), 199-205.
  • Humphrey, R. (1991). Impact of feeding problems on the parent-infant relationship. Infants and Young Children, 3(3). 30-38.
  • Illingsworth, R. (1969). Sucking and swallowing difficulties in infancy: Diagnostic problems of dysphagia. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 44, 655-665.
  • Illingworth, R. S., & Lister, J. (1964). The critical or sensitive period, with special reference to certain feeding problems in infants and children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 65(6), 839-848.
  • Jain, L. Sivieri, E., Abbasi, S., & Bhutani, V. K. (1987). Energetics and mechanics of nutritive sucking in the preterm and term neonate. Journal of Pediatrics, 111, 894-898.
  • Judd, P., Kenny, D., Koheil, R., Milner, M., & Moran, R. (1989). The multidisciplinary feeding profile: A statistically based protocol for assessment of dependent feeders. Dysphagia, 4(1). 29-34.
  • Kennedy, J., & Kent, R. (1985). Anatomy and physiology of deglutition and related functions. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4). 257-273.
  • Kenny, D., Koheil, R., Greenberg, J., Reid, D., Milner, M., Moran, R., & Judd, P. (1989). Development of a multidisciplinary feeding profile for children who are dependent feeders. Dysphagia, 4(1), 16-28.
  • Kramer, S. S., & Eicher, P. M. (1993). The evaluation of pediatric feeding abnormalities. Dysphagia, 8, 215-224.
  • Krick, J., & Van Duyn, M. (1984). The relationship between oral-motor involvement and growth: A pilot study in a pediatric population with cerebral palsy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 84(5), 555-559.
  • Kumin, L., & Bahr, D. C. (1999). Patterns of feeding, eating, and drinking in young children with Down syndrome with oral motor concerns. Down Syndrome Quarterly, 4(2), 1-8.
  • Kumin, L., Von Hagel, K. C., & Bahr, D. C. (2001). An effective oral motor intervention protocol for infants and toddlers with low muscle tone. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 11(3-4), 181-200.
  • Lawrence, R. (Ed.). (1987). Breastfeeding. Clinics in Perinatology, 14(1).
  • Leeuw, R. D., Colin, E. M., Dunnebier, E. A., & Mirmiran, M. (1991) Physiological effects of kangaroo care in very small preterm infants, Biology of the Neonate, 59(3), 149-155.
  • Love, R. J., Hagerman, E. L., & Tiami, E. G. (1980). Speech performance, dysphagia, and oral reflexes in cerebral palsy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 45, 59-75.
  • Maller, O., & Turner, R. E. (1973). Taste in acceptance of sugars in human infants. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 84, 496-501.
  • Matthew, O. P., & Bhatia, J. (1989). Sucking and breathing patterns during breast- and bottle-feeding in term neonates. American Journal of Disease in Children, 143, 588-592.
  • Matthews, C. L., (1994). Supporting suck-swallow-breath coordination during nipple feeding. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48(6). 561-562.
  • McCoy, R., Kadowaki, C., Wilks, S., Engstrom, J. & Meier, P. (1988). Nursing management of breast feeding for preterm infants. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 2(1), 42-55.
  • Measel, C. P., & Anderson, G. C. (1980). Non-nutritive sucking during tube feeding: Effect on clinical course in premature infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 8, 265.
  • Meier, P. (1980). A program to support breast-feeding in the special care nursery. Perinatology/Neonatology, 4, 43.
  • Meier, P., & Anderson, G. C. (1987). Responses of small preterm infants to bottle and breast feeding. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 12, 97.
  • Meier, P., & Pugh, E. (1985). Breast feeding behavior in small preterm infants. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 10, 396.
  • Mizuno, K., & Ueda, A. (2001). Development of sucking behavior in infants who have not been fed for 2 months after birth. Pediatrics International, 43(3). 251-255.
  • Morris, S. E. (1985). Developmental implications for the management of feeding problems in neurologically impaired infants. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 293-315.
  • Morris, S. E. (1987). Therapy for the child with cerebral palsy: Interacting frameworks. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1), 71-86.
  • Morris, S. E. (1989). Development of oral-motor skills in the neurologically impaired child receiving non-oral feedings. Dysphagia, 3(3). 135-154.
  • Moore, C. A., & Ruark, J. L. (1996). Does speech emerge from earlier appearing oral motor behaviors? Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 1034-1047.
  • Ogawa, T., Ogawa, M., & Koyano, K. (2001). Different responses of masticatory movements after alteration of occlusal guidance related to individual movement pattern. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(9), 830-841.
  • Ogg, M. A. (1975). Oral-pharyngeal development and evaluation. Physical Therapy, 55, 235-241.
  • Ostry, D. J., & Flanagan, J. R. (1989). Human jaw movement in mastication and speech. Archives of Oral Biology, 34, 685-693.
  • Paludetto, A. R., Robertson, S. S., & Martin, R. J. (1986). Interaction between non-nutritive sucking and respiration in preterm infants. Biology of the Neonate, 49, 198.
  • Patrick, J., & Gisel E. G. (1990). Nutrition for the feeding-impaired child. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 4, 115.
  • Reilly, S., Skuse, D., Mathisen, M. & Wolke, D. (1995). The objective rating of oral-motor functions during feeding. Dysphagia, 10, 177-191.
  • Riski, J. E. (2007). Feeding the infant born with cleft lip/palate: A literature review. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13, 16(3), 12-17.
  • Rocha, A. D., Moreira, M. E. L., Pimenta, H. P., Ramos, J. R. M , & Lucena, S. L. A. (2007). Randomized study of the efficacy of sensory-motor-oral stimulation and non-nutritive sucking in very low birthweight infants. Early Human Development, 83(6), 385-388.
  • Ruark J. L., & Moore, C. A. (1997). Coordination of lip muscle activity by 2-year-old children during speech and nonspeech tasks. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1373-1385.
  • Rudolph, C. D. (1994). Feeding disorders in infants and children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 125, S116.
  • Rybski, D. A., Almli, R. C., & Gisel, E. G. (1984). Sucking behaviours of normal 3-day-old female neonates during a 24-hour period. Developmental psychobiology, 17, 70.
  • Rybski, D. A. , & Gisel, E. G. (1984). Optimal and sub-optimal feeding behaviors of neonates. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 4, 37.
  • Sameroff, A. J. (1968). The components of sucking in the human newborn. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 6, 607-623.
  • Schwartz, J., Niman, C., & Gisel, E. (1984). Tongue movements in normal preschool children during eating. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 38(2), 87-93.
  • Selley, W. G., Ellis, R. E., Flack, F. C., & Brooks, W. A. (1990). Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing in the newborn: Its relationship to infant feeding and normal development. The British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 2(3)5, 311-327.
  • Spender, Q., Dennis, J., Stein, A., Cave, D., Percy, E., & Reilly, S. (1995). Impaired oral-motor function in children with Down's syndrome: A study of three twin pairs. European Journal of Disorder of Communication, 30, 77-87.
  • Spender, Q., Stein, A., Dennis, J., Reilly, S., Percy, E., & Cave, D. (1996). An exploration of feeding difficulties in children with Down syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 681-694.
  • Stolovitz, P., & Gisel, E. G. (1991). Circumoral movements in response to three different food textures in children six months to two years of age. Dysphagia, 6, 17.
  • Takagi, Y, Irwin, J. V., & Bosma, J. F. (1966). Prone feeding of infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. The Cleft Palate Journal, 3, 232.
  • Tuchman, D. N. (1989). Cough, choke, sputter: The evaluation of the child with dysfunctional swallowing. Dysphagia, 3, 111-116.
  • Tucker, J. A. (1985). Perspectives on the development of the air and food passages. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 131, S7-S9.
  • Weber, F. M., Woolridge, W., & Baum, J. D. (1986). An ultrasonographic study of the organization of sucking and swallowing by newborn infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 19-24.
  • Widstrom, A. M., Marchini, G., Matthiesen, A. S., Werner, S., Winberg, J., & Uvnas-Moberg, K. (1988). Non-nutritive sucking in tube fed preterm infants: Effects on gastric motility and gastric contents of somatostatin. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 7(4), 517-523.
  • Wolff, P. H. (1968). The serial organization of sucking in the young infant. Pediatrics, 42, 943-955.
  • Ziev, M. S. R. (1999). Earliest intervention: Speech-Language pathology services in the neonatal intensive care unit. Asha, 41(3), 32-36.


FEEDING/EATING/DRINKING (ADULT)

  • Beidler, L. M., & Smallman, R. L. (1965). Renewal of cells within taste buds. Journal of Cellular Biology, 27(2), 263-272.
  • Hargrove, R. (1980). Feeding the severely dysphagic patient. Journal of Neurosurgical Nursing, 12(2), 102-107.
  • Hirano, K., Hirano, S., & Hayakawa, I. (2004). The role of oral sensorimotor function in masticatory ability. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31(3), 199-205.
  • Judd, P., Kenny, D., Koheil, R., Milner, M., & Moran, R. (1989). The multidisciplinary feeding profile: A statistically based protocol for assessment of dependent feeders. Dysphagia, 4(1). 29-34.
  • Kennedy, J., & Kent, R. (1985). Anatomy and physiology of deglutition and related functions. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4). 257-273.
  • Miller, A. J. (1982). Deglutition. Physiological Reviews, 63, 129.
  • Murray, J. P. (1962). Deglutition in myasthenia gravis. The British Journal of Radiology, 35, 43.
  • Ogawa, T., Ogawa, M., & Koyano, K. (2001). Different responses of masticatory movements after alteration of occlusal guidance related to individual movement pattern. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(9), 830-841.
  • Ostry, D. J., & Flanagan, J. R. (1989). Human jaw movement in mastication and speech. Archives of Oral Biology, 34, 685-693.
  • Pelletier, C. A. (2004). What do certified nurse assistants actually know about dysphagia and feeding nursing home residents? American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(2), 99-113.
  • Ramsey, W. O. (1986). Suckle facilitation of feeding in selected adult dysphagic persons. Dysphagia, 1, 7.
  • Robbins, J. (1992). The impact of oral motor dysfunction on swallowing: From beginning to end. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 55-69.


ORAL ACTIVITIES/EXERCISES RELATED TO ORAL MOTOR FUNCTION

  • Ansel, B. M.,Windsor, J., & Stark, R. E. (1992). Oral volitional movements in children: An approach to assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 1-13.
  • Barlow, S. M., & Abbs. J. H. (1983). Force transducers for the evaluation of labial, lingual, and mandibular function in dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 26, 616-621.
  • Beckman, D., Neal, C., Phirsichbaum, J., Stratton, L., Taylor, V., & Ratusnik, D. (2004). Range of movement and strength in oral motor therapy: A retrospective study. Florida Journal of Communication Disorders, 21, 7-14.
  • Clark, G. T., & Carter, M. C. (1985). Electromyographic study of human jaw closing muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery at various isometric force levels. Archives of Oral Biology, 30, 563-569.
  • Clark, H. M., Robin, D. A., McCullagh, G., & Schmidt, R. A. (2001). Motor control in children and adults during a non-speech oral task. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 1015-1025.
  • Collumbine, H., Bibile, S. W., Wikramanayake, T. W., & Watson, R. S. (1950). Influence of age, sex, physique, and muscular development on physical fitness. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2, 488-511.
  • Dewey, D., Roy, E. A., Square-Storer, P. A., & Hayden, D. (1988). Limb and oral praxic abilities of children with verbal sequencing deficits. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 30, 743-751.
  • Dworkin, J. P. (1996). Bite block therapy of oromandibular dystonia. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 4, 47-56.
  • Dworkin, J. P., & Aronson, A. E. (1986). Tongue strength and alternate motion rates in normal and dysarthric subjects. Journal of Communication Disorders, 19, 115-132.
  • Dworkin, J. P., Aronson, A. E., & Mulder, D. W. (1980). Tongue strength in normal subjects and dysarthric patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23, 828-837.
  • Enoka, R. M., & Stuart, D. G. (1985). The contribution of neuroscience to exercise studies. Federation Proceedings, 44(7), 2279-2285.
  • Forrest, K. (2002). Are oral-motor exercises useful in the treatment of phonological/articulatory disorders? Seminars in Speech and Language, 23, 15-26.
  • Gandevia, S. C., (1982). The perception of motor commands or effort during muscular paralysis. Brain, 105, 151-159.
  • Hiyama, S., Iwamoto, S., Ono, R., Ishiwata, Y. & Kuroda, T. (2000). Genioglossus muscle activity during rhythmic open-close jaw movements. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 27(8), 664-670.
  • Iverson, J. M., Hall, A. J., Nickel, L., & Wozniak, R. H. (2007). The relationship between reduplicated babble onset and laterality in infant rhythmic arm movements. Brain and Language, 101(3), 198-207.
  • Junge, D., & Clark, G. T. (1993). Electromyographic turns analysis of sustained contraction in human masseter muscles at various isometric force levels. Archives of Oral Biology, 38, 583-588.
  • Kohno, S., Matsuyama, T., Medina, R. U., & Arai, Y.(2001). Functional-rhythmical coupling of head and mandibular movements. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(2), 161-167.
  • Koller, W., & Kase, S. (1986). Muscle strength testing in Parkinson's disease. European Neurology, 25, 130-133.
  • Kumin, L., Von Hagel, K. C., & Bahr, D. C. (2001). An effective oral motor intervention protocol for infants and toddlers with low muscle tone. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 11(3-4), 181-200.v
  • Larsson , L., & Karlsson, J. (1978) Isometric and dynamic endurance as a function of age and skeletal muscle characteristics. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 104, 129-136.
  • McHenry, M. A., Minton, J. T., Wilson, R. L., & Post, Y. V. (1994). Intelligibility and nonspeech orofacial strength and force control following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1271-1283.
  • Moore, C. A. (1993). Symmetry of mandibular muscle activity as an index of coordinative strategy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 31, 670-680.
  • Moore, C. A., Caulfield, T. J., & Green J. R. (2001). Relative kinematics of the rib cage and abdomen during speech and nonspeech behaviors of 15-month-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 80-94.
  • Murdoch, B. E., Attard, M. D., Ozanne, A. E., & Stokes, P. D. (1995). Impaired tongue strength and endurance in developmental verbal dyspraxia: A physiological analysis. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 30, 51-64.
  • Miyaoka, S, Hirano, H., Miyaoka, Y, & Yamada, Y. (2004). Head movement associated with performance of mandibular tasks. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31(9), 843-850.
  • Netsell, R., Daniel, B., & Celesia, G. G. (1975). Acceleration and weakness in parkinsonian dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40, 170-078.
  • Palmer, M. F., & Osborn, C. D. (1940). A study of tongue pressures of speech defective and normal speaking individuals. Journal of Speech Disorders, 52, 133-140.
  • Petrofsky, J. S., & Lind, A. R. (1975). Isometric strength, endurance, and the blood pressure and heart rate responses during isometric exercise in healthy men and women with special reference to age and body fat content. Pflugers Archive: European Journal of Physiology, 360, 49-61.
  • Robin, D. A., Goel, A., Somodi, L. B., & Luschei, E. S. (1992). Tongue strength and endurance: Relation to highly skilled movements. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1239-1245.
  • Robbins, J., Gangnon, R. E., Theis, S. M, Kays, S. A., Hewitt, A. L., & Hind, J. A. (2005). The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(9), 1483-1489.
  • Robbins, J., Kays, S. A., Gangnon, R. E., Hind, J. A., Hewitt, A. L., Gentry, L., R., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(2), 150-158.
  • Roy, R. R., Baldwin, K. M., & Edgerton, V. R. (1991). The plasticity of skeletal muscle: Effects of neuromuscular activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 19, 269-312.
  • Scheerer, C. R. (1992). Perspectives on an oral motor activity: The use of rubber tubing as a "chewy." The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46, 344-352.
  • Scott, B. J., Mason, A. G., & Cadden, S. W. (2002). Voluntary and reflex control of the human temporalis muscle. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29(7), 634-643.
  • Sgobbi De Faria, C. R., & Berzin, F. (1998). Electromyographic study of the temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscles in the mandibular rest position. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 25(10). 776.
  • Solomon, N. P., Lorell, C. M., Robin, D. A., Rodnitzky, R. L., & Luschei, E., S. (1995). Tongue strength and endurance in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 3, 15-26.
  • Tamura, T., Kanayama, T., Yoshida, S., & Kawasake, T. (2003). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human jaw movements. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 30(6), 614-622.
  • Uchida, S., Inoue, H., & Maeda, T. (1999). Electromyographic study of the activity of jaw depressor muscles before initiation of opening movements. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 26(6), 503-510.
  • Wang, M. Q., Yan, C. Y., & Yuan, Y. P. (2001). Is the superior belly of the lateral pterygoid primarily a stabilizer? An EMG study. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(6), 507-510.
  • Watanabe, K. (2000). The relationship between dentofacial morphology and the isometric jaw-opening and closing muscle function as evaluated by electromyography. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 27(7), 639-345.
  • Wood, L. M., Hughes, J., Hayes, K. C., & Wolfe, D. L. (1992). Reliability of labial closure force measurement in normal subjects and patients with CNS disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 252-258.
  • Yanagawa, S., Shindo, M., & Yanagisawa, N. (1990). Muscular weakness in Parkinson's disease. Advances in Neurology, 53, 259-269.


MYOFUNCTIONAL THERAPY

NOTE: Many more references found in the International Journal of Orofacial Myology and some other journals.

  • Fletcher, S., Casteel, R., & Bradley, D. (1961). Tongue thrust swallow, speech articulation, and age. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 26, 219-225.
  • Graber, T. (1976). For want of T-L-C. International Journal of Oral Myology, 2, 7-12.
  • Hanson, M., & Cohen, M. (1973). Effects of form and function on swallowing and the developing dentition. American Journal of Orthodontics, 64, 63-82.
  • Hayasaki, H., Yamasaki, Y., Nishijima, N., Naruse, K.. & Nakata, M. (1998). Characteristics of protrusive and lateral excursions of the mandible in children with the primary dentition. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 25(4), 311-320.
  • Meyer, P. G. (2000). Tongue, lip, and jaw differentiation and its relationship to orofacial myofunctional treatment. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 26, 44-52.
  • Miyaoka, S, Hirano, H., Miyaoka, Y, & Yamada, Y. (2004). Head movement associated with performance of mandibular tasks. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 31(9), 843-850.
  • Ogawa, T., Ogawa, M., & Koyano, K. (2001). Different responses of masticatory movements after alteration of occlusal guidance related to individual movement pattern. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(9), 830-841.
  • Page, D. C. (1999). The new dental-medical renaissance: Medically efficacious functional jaw orthopedics. The Functional Orthodontist: A Journal of Functional Jaw Orthopedics, 16(1), 16-25.
  • Paskay, L. C. (2006). Instrumentation and measurement procedures in orofacial myology. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 37-57.
  • Ray, J. (2006). Orofacial myofunctional deficits in elderly individuals. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 22-31.
  • Verrastro, A. P., Stefani, F. M., Rodrigues, C. R., & Wanderly, M. T. (2006). Occlusal and orofacial myofunctional evaluation in children with primary dentition, anterior open bite and pacifier sucking habit. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 7-21.


SWALLOWING (PEDIATRIC)

NOTE: See "Feeding" resources above for more information on the "Oral Phase" of swallowing. Also see Dysphagia journal and Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13.

  • Alper, B. S., & Manno, C. J. (1996). Dysphagia in infants and children with oral-motor deficits: Assessment and management. Seminars in Speech and Language, 17, 283-309.
  • Ardran, G., & Kemp, F. (1970). Some important factors in the assessment of oropharyngeal function. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 12, 158-166.
  • Bu'Lock, F., Woolridge, M., & Baum, J. (1990). Development of co-ordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing: Ultrasound study of term and preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 669-678.
  • Catto-Smith, A. G., Machida, H., Butzner, J. D., Gall, D. G., & Scott, R. B. (1991). The role of gastroesophageal reflux in pediatric dysphagia. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 12(2), 159-165.
  • Dahlquist, L. M., & Blount, R. L. (1984). Teaching a six-year-old girt to swallow pills. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 15, 171-173.
  • Fisher, S. E., Painter, M., & Milmoe, G. (1981). Swallowing disorders in infancy. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 28(4). 845-853.
  • Frazier, J. B., & Friedman, B. (1996). Swallow function in children with Down syndrome: A retrospective study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 695-703.
  • Hanson, M., & Cohen, M. (1973). Effects of form and function on swallowing and the developing dentition. American Journal of Orthodontics, 64, 63-82.
  • Jean, A. (1984). Brainstem organization of the swallowing network. Brain Behavior, 25, 109-116.
  • Kenny, D., Casas, M., & McPherson, K. (1989). Correlation of ultrasound imaging of oral swallow with ventilatory alterations in cerebral palsied and normal children: Preliminary observations. Dysphagia, 4(2), 112-117.
  • Kramer, S. Special swallowing problems in children. (1985). Gastrointestinal Radiology, 10, 241-250.
  • Kramer, S. (Ed.). (1989). Proceedings of the pediatric presentation at the second dysphagia symposium, Johns Hopkins Hospital, March 10-11, 1988 [Special issue]. Dysphagia, 3(3).
  • Larson, C. (1985). Neurophysiology of speech and swallowing. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 275-291.
  • Logan, W. J., & Bosma, J. F. (1967). Oral and pharyngeal dysphagia in infants. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 14, 47.
  • Love, R. J., Hagerman, E. L., & Tiami, E. G. (1980). Speech performance, dysphagia, and oral reflexes in cerebral palsy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 45, 59-75.
  • Miller, A. J. (1972). Significance of sensory inflow to the swallowing reflex. Brain Research, 43, 147-159.
  • Mizuno, K., & Ueda, A. (2001). Development of sucking behavior in infants who have not been fed for 2 months after birth. Pediatrics International, 43(3), 251-255.
  • Ogawa, T., Ogawa, M., & Koyano, K. (2001). Different responses of masticatory movements after alteration of occlusal guidance related to individual movement pattern. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(9), 830-841.
  • Ogg, M. A. (1975). Oral-pharyngeal development and evaluation. Physical Therapy, 55, 235-241.
  • Ostry, D. J., & Flanagan, J. R. (1989). Human jaw movement in mastication and speech. Archives of Oral Biology, 34, 685-693.
  • Robbins, J., & Klee, T. (1987). Clinical assessment of orophayngeal motor development in young children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 271-277.
  • Sivit, C. (1990). The role of the pediatric radiologist in the evaluation of oral and pharyngeal dysphagia. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 4, 103.
  • Sochaniwskyj, A., Koheil, R., Baablich, K., Milner, M., & Kenny, D. (1986). Oral motor functioning, frequency of swallowing, and drooling in normal children and in children with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 866-874.
  • Tuchman, D. N. (1989). Cough, choke, sputter: The evaluation of the child with dysfunctional swallowing. Dysphagia, 3, 111-116.
  • Weber, F. M., Woolridge, W., & Baum, J. D. (1986). An ultrasonographic study of the organization of sucking and swallowing by newborn infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 19-24.
  • Woody, R. C., & Kiel, E. A. (1968). Swallowing syncope in a child. Pediatrics, 78, 507.


SWALLOWING (ADULT)

NOTE: See "Feeding" resources above for more information on the "Oral Phase" of swallowing. Also see Dysphagia journal and Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13.

  • Bisch, E. M., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Kahrilas, P. J., & Lazarus, C. L. (1994). Pharyngeal effects of bolus volume, viscosity, and temperature in patients with dysphagia resulting from neurologic impairment and normal subjects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37(5), 1041-1059.
  • Buchholz, D., Bosma, J., & Donner, M. (1985). Adaptation, compensation, and decompensation of the pharyngeal swallow. Gastrointestinal Radiology, 10, 235-239.
  • Castell, D., & Conner, M. (1987). Evaluation of dysphagia: A careful history is crucial. Dysphagia, 2(2), 65-71.
  • Fucile, S., Wright, P. M., Chan, I., Yee, S., Langlais, M., & Gisel, E. G. (1998). Functional oral-motor skills: Do they change with age? Dysphagia, 13, 195-201.
  • Hargrove, R. (1980). Feeding the severely dysphagic patient. Journal of Neurosurgical Nursing, 12(2), 102-107.
  • Jean, A. (1984). Brainstem organization of the swallowing network. Brain Behavior, 25, 109-116.
  • Kaplan, P. R., & Evans, I. M. (1978), A case of functional dysphagia treated on the model of fear of fear. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 9, 71-72.
  • Kasprisin, A. Clumeck, H., & Nino-Murcia, M. (1989). The efficacy of rehabilitative management of dysphagia. Dysphagia, 4(1), 48-52.
  • Kennedy, J., & Kent, R. (1985). Anatomy and physiology of deglutition and related functions. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4). 257-273.
  • Larson, C. (1985). Neurophysiology of speech and swallowing. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 275-291.
  • Lazzara, G. D., Lazarus, C., & Logemann, J. A. (1986). Impact of thermal stimulation on the triggering of the swallowing reflex. Dysphagia, 1, 73.
  • Logemann, J. A. (1985). The relationship of speech and swallowing in head and neck surgical patients. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 351-359.
  • Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Colangelo, L., Lazarus, C., Fujiu, M., & Kahrilas, P. J. (1995). Effects of a sour bolus on oropharyngeal swallowing measures in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38(3), 556-563.
  • McNally, R. J. (1986). Behavioral treatment of a choking phobia. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 17, 185-188.
  • Miller, A. J. (1972). Significance of sensory inflow to the swallowing reflex. Brain Research, 43, 147-159.
  • Ogawa, T., Ogawa, M., & Koyano, K. (2001). Different responses of masticatory movements after alteration of occlusal guidance related to individual movement pattern. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28(9), 830-841.
  • Ostry, D. J., & Flanagan, J. R. (1989). Human jaw movement in mastication and speech. Archives of Oral Biology, 34, 685-693.
  • Pelletier, C. A. (2004). What do certified nurse assistants actually know about dysphagia and feeding nursing home residents? American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(2), 99-113.
  • Ramsey, W. O. (1986). Suckle facilitation of feeding in selected adult dysphagia patients. Dysphagia, 1, 7.
  • Robbins, J. (1985). Swallowing and speech problems in the neurologically impaired adult. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 337-350.
  • Robbins, J. (1992). The impact of oral motor dysfunction on swallowing: From beginning to end. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 55-69.
  • Robbins, J. (2002). The current state of clinical geriatric dysphagia research. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 39(4), vii-ix.
  • Robbins, J. (2006). New frontiers in dysphagia rehabilitation. Seminars in Speech and Language, 27(4), 217-218.
  • Robbins, J., Gangnon, R. E., Theis, S. M, Kays, S. A., Hewitt, A. L., & Hind, J. A. (2005). The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(9), 1483-1489.
  • Robbins, J., Kays, S. A., Gangnon, R. E., Hind, J. A., Hewitt, A. L., Gentry, L., R., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(2), 150-158.
  • Rosenbek, J. C., Robbins, J., Fishback, B., & Levine, R. L. (1991). Effect of thermal application on dysphagia after stroke. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34(6), 1257-1268.
  • Solyom, L., & Sookman, D. (1980). Fear of choking and its treatment. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 25, 30-34.
  • Strand, E. A., Miller, R. M., Yorkston, K. M., & Hillel, A. D. (1996). Management of oral-pharyngeal dysphagia symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dysphagia, 11, 129.
  • Wilson, S. L., Thach, B. T., Brouillette, R. T., & Abu-Osba, Y. K. (1981). Coordination of breathing and swallowing. Journal of Applied Physiology, 50(4), 851-858.


MOTOR SPEECH (PEDIATRIC)

  • Adler-Bock, M., Bernhardt, B. M., Gick, B., & Bacsfalvi, P. (2007). The use of ultrasound in remediation of North American English /r/ in 2 Adolescents. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(2), 128-139.
  • Alexander, R. (1987). Oral-motor treatment for infants and young children with cerebral palsy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1). 87-100.
  • Barry, R. M. (1995). A comparative study of the relationship between dysarthria and verbal dyspraxia in adults and children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 9, 311-312.
  • Barry, R. M. (1995). The relationship between dysarthria and verbal dyspraxia in children: A comparative study using profiling and instrumental analyses. Clinical Linguisics and Phonetics, 9, 277-309.
  • Bashina, V. M., Simashkova, N. V., Grachev, V. V., & Gorbachevskaya, N. L. (2002). Speech and motor disturbances in Rett syndrome. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 32, 323-327.
  • Bashir, A., Graham-Jones, F., & Bostwick, R. (1984). A touch cue method of therapy for developmental verbal apraxia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 5, 127-138.
  • Bateson, E., & Ostry, D. (1995). An analysis of the dimensionality of jaw movement in speech. Journal of Phonetics, 23, 101-117.
  • Belton, E., Salmond, C. H., Watkins, K. E., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Gadian, D. G. (2003). Bilateral brain abnormalities associated with dominantly inherited verbal orofacial dyspraxia. Human Brain Mapping, 18, 194-200.
  • Boysson-Bardies, B. D., Sagart, L., & Bacri, N. (1981). Phonetic analysis of late babbling: A case study of a French child. Journal of Child Language, 8, 511-524.
  • Boysson-Bardies, B. D., & Vihman, M. M. (1991). Adaptation to language: Evidence from babbling and first words in four languages. Language, 67, 297-319.
  • Chumpelik (Hayden), D. (1984). The PROMPT system of therapy: Theoretical framework and applications for developmental apraxia of speech. Seminars in Speech and Language, 5, 139-156.
  • Cobo-Lewis, A. B., Oller, K. D., Lynch, M. P., Levine, S. L. (1996). Relations of motor and vocal milestones in typically developing infants and infants with Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 100(5), 456-467.
  • Conrad, B., & Schonle, P. (1979). Speech and respiration. Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Services, 226, 251-268.
  • Crary, M. A. (1995). Clinical evaluation of developmental motor speech disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language, 16, 110-125.
  • Davis, B., & MacNeilage, P. (1995). The articulatory basis of babbling. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 1199-1211.
  • Davis, B., & Velleman, S. L. (2000). Differential diagnosis and treatment of developmental apraxia of speech in infants and toddlers. Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal, 10, 177-192.
  • Davis, L. (1987). Respiration and phonation in cerebral palsy: A developmental model. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1), 101-106.
  • Dewey, D., Roy, E. A., Square-Storer, P. A., & Hayden, D. (1988). Limb and oral praxic abilities of children with verbal sequencing deficits. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 30, 743-751.
  • Edwards, J. (1985). Contextual effects on lingual-mandibular coordination. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78, 1944-1948.
  • Flipsen, P., Jr., Hammer, J. B., & Yost, K. M. (2005). Measuring severity of involvement in speech delay: Segmental and whole-word measures. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(4), 298-312.
  • Forrest, K. (2002). Are oral-motor exercises useful in the treatment of phonological/articulatory disorders? Seminars in Speech and Language, 23, 15-26.
  • Gay, T. (1974). Jaw movements during speech: A cinefluorographic investigation. Haskins Laboratories. Status Report on Speech Research, 39140, 219-229.
  • Gibbon, F., Stewart, F., Hardcastle, W. J., & Crampin, L. (1999). Widening access to eletropalatography for children with perisistent sound system disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 319-334.
  • Gracco, V. L. (1994). Some organizational characteristics of speech movement control. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 37, 4-27.
  • Gracco, V. L., & Abbs, J. H. (1986). Variant and invariant characteristics of speech movements. Experimental Brain Research, 65, 156-166.
  • Gracco, V. L., & Lofqvist, A. (1994). Speech motor coordination and control: Evidence from lip, jaw, and laryngeal movements. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 6585-6597.
  • Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., Higashikawa, M., & Steeve, R. W. (2000). The sequential development of jaw and lip control for speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 66-79.
  • Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., & Reilly, K. J. (2002). The physiologic development of speech motor control: Lip and jaw coordination. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 239-255.
  • Hayden, D. A., & Square, P. A. (1994). Motor speech treatment hierarchy: A systems approach. Clinics in Communication Disorders, 4, 151-161.
  • Hertrich, I., & Ackermann, H. (2000). Lip-jaw and tongue-jaw coordination during rate-controlled syllable repetitions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 2236-2247.
  • Hughes, O. M., & Abbs, J. H. (1976). Labial-mandibular coordination in the production of speech: Implication for the operation of motor equivalence. Phonetica, 33, 199-221.
  • Iverson, J. M., Hall, A. J., Nickel, L., & Wozniak, R. H. (2007). The relationship between reduplicated babble onset and laterality in infant rhythmic arm movements. Brain and Language, 101(3), 198-207.
  • Kelso, J. A., Tuller, B., Vatikiotis-Bateson, E., & Fowler, C. A. (1984). Functionally specific articulatory cooperation following jaw perturbations during speech: Evidence for coordinative structures. International Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 812-832.
  • Kent, R. D. (2000). Research on speech motor control and its disorders: A review and prospective. Journal of Communication Disorders, 33, 391-428.
  • Kent, R. D., Netsell, R., Osberger, M. J., & Hustedde, C. G. (1987). Phonetic development in twins who differ in auditory function. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 64-75.
  • Kumin, L. (1996). Speech and language skills in children with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 2, 109-116. Larson, C. (1985). Neurophysiology of speech and swallowing. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 275-291.
  • Lind, J., Wasz-Hockert, O., Vuorenkoski, V., & Valanne, E. (1965). The vocalization of a newborn brain-damaged child. Annales Paediatrica Fenniae, 11, 32-37.
  • Love, R. J., Hagerman, E. L., & Tiami, E. G. (1980). Speech performance, dysphagia, and oral reflexes in cerebral palsy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 45, 59-75.
  • Maassen, B. (2002). Issues contrasting adult acquired versus developmental apraxia of speech. Seminars in Speech and Language, 23, 257-266.
  • Marshalla, P. R. (1985). The role of reflexes in oral-motor learning: Techniques for improved articulation. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 317-336.
  • Moore, C. A. (1993). Symmetry of mandibular muscle activity as an index of coordinative strategy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 31, 670-680.
  • Moore, C. A., Caulfield, T. J., & Green J. R. (2001). Relative kinematics of the rib cage and abdomen during speech and nonspeech behaviors of 15-month-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 80-94.
  • Moore, C. A., & Ruark, J. L. (1996). Does speech emerge from earlier appearing oral motor behaviors? Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 1034-1047.
  • Muir, N. Y., Allard, G. B., & Greenburg, C. (1999). Oral language development in a child with Floating-Harbor syndrome. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 30, 207-211.
  • Murdoch, B. E., Attard, M. D., Ozanne, A. E., & Stokes, P. D. (1995). Impaired tongue strength and endurance in developmental verbal dyspraxia: A physiological analysis. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 30, 51-64.
  • Mysak, E. (Ed.). (1978). Communication disorders of the cerebral palsied: Assessment and treatment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8(1).
  • Oller, D. (1978). Infant vocalization and the development of speech. Allied Health and Behavioral Sciences, 1(4), 532-549.
  • Oller, D. K., & Eilers, R. E. (1988). The role of audition in infant babbling. Child Development, 59, 441-446.
  • Oller, D. K., Eilers, R. E., Neal, R., & Schwartz, H. (1999). Precursors to speech in infancy: The prediction of speech and language disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders, 32, 223-245.
  • Oller, D., Wieman, L., Doyle, W., & Ross, C. (1975). Infant babbling and speech. Journal of Child Language, 3, 1-11.
  • Ong, D., & Stone, M. (1998). Three-dimensional vocal tract shapes in /r/ and /l/: A study of MRI, ultrasound, electropalatography, and acoustics. Phonoscope, 1, 1-13.
  • Ostry, D. J., & Flanagan, J. R. (1989). Human jaw movement in mastication and speech. Archives of Oral Biology, 34, 685-693.
  • Pannbacker, M. (2004). Velopharyngeal incompetence: The need for speech standards. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(3). 195-201.
  • Robin, D. A. (1992). Developmental apraxia of speech: Just another motor problem. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 1, 19-22.
  • Rosenbek, J., Hansen, R., Baughman, C. H., & Lemme, M. (1974). Treatment of developmental apraxia of speech: A case study. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 5, 13-22.
  • Ruark J. L., & Moore, C. A. (1997). Coordination of lip muscle activity by 2-year-old children during speech and nonspeech tasks. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1373-1385.
  • Rvachew, S., Slawinski, E. G., Williams, M., & Green C. L. (1996). Formant frequencies of vowels produced by infants with and without early otitis media. Canadian Acoustics/Acoustique Canadienne, 24, 19-28.
  • Stark, R. (1978). Features of infant sounds: The emergence of cooing. Journal of Child Language, 5, 1-12.
  • Stoel-Gammon, C. (1997). Phonological development in Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 3, 300-306.
  • Strand, E. (1995). Treatment of motor speech disorders in children. Seminars in Speech and Language, 16, 126-139.
  • Thoonen, G., Maassen, B., Gabreels, F., & Schreuder, R. (1999). Validity of maximum performance tasks to diagnose motor speech disorders in children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 13, 1-23.
  • Walsh, B., & Smith, A. (2002). Articulatory movements in adolescents: Evidence of the protracted development of speech motor control processes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1119-1133.
  • Westbury, J. R., Lindstrom, M. J., & McClean, M. D. (2002). Tongues and lips without jaws: A comparison of methods for decoupling speech movements. International Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 651-662.
  • Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (1998). Diadochokinetic skills: Normal and atypical performance in children aged 3-5 years. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 33 (Suppl.), 481-486.
  • Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (2000). Rate, accuracy, and consistency: Diadochokinetic performance of young normally developing children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 14, 267-293.
  • Zeeman, S., Nowaczyk, M. J. M., Teshima, I., Roberts, W., Oram Cardy, J., Brian, J., et al. (2006). Speech and language impairment and oromotor dyspraxia due to deletion of 7q31 that involves FOXP2. American Journal of Human Genetics, 140(A), 509-514.


MOTOR SPEECH (ADULT)

  • Barry, R. M. (1995). A comparative study of the relationship between dysarthria and verbal dyspraxia in adults and children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 9, 311-312.
  • Bateson, E., & Ostry, D. (1995). An analysis of the dimensionality of jaw movement in speech. Journal of Phonetics, 23, 101-117.
  • Brown, J. R., Darley, F. L., & Aronson, A. E. (1970). Ataxic dysarthria. International Journal of Neurology, 7, 302-318.
  • Canter, G. J. (1965). Speech characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease: III. Articulation, diadochokinesis, and over-all speech adequacy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 30, 217-224.
  • Connor, N. P., Ludlow, C. L., & Schulz, G. M. (1989). Stop consonant production in insolated and repeated syllables in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychologia, 27, 829-838.
  • Conrad, B., & Schonle, P. (1979). Speech and respiration. Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Services, 226, 251-268.
  • Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1969). Differential diagnostic patterns of dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12, 246-269.
  • Duffy, J. R., Peach, R. K., & Strand, E. A. (2007). Progressive apraxia of speech as a sign of motor neuron disease. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3). 198-208.
  • Dworkin, J. P., & Aronson, A. E. (1986). Tongue strength and alternate motion rates in normal and dysarthric subjects. Journal of Communication Disorders, 19, 115-132.
  • Dworkin, J. P., Aronson, A. E., & Mulder, D. W. (1980). Tongue strength in normal subjects and dysarthric patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23, 828-837.
  • Edwards, J. (1985). Contextual effects on lingual-mandibular coordination. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78, 1944-1948.
  • Enderby, P., & Crow, E. (1990). Long-term recovery patterns of severe dysarthria following head injury. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 25, 341-354.
  • Forrest, K., Weismer, M., & Turner, G. S. (1989). Kinematic, acoustic, and perceptual analyses of connected speech produced by parkinsonian and normal geriatric adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85, 2608-2622.
  • Gay, T. (1974). Jaw movements during speech: A cinefluorographic investigation. Haskins Laboratories. Status Report on Speech Research, 39140, 219-229.
  • Gracco, V. L. (1994). Some organizational characteristics of speech movement control. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 37, 4-27.
  • Gracco, V. L., & Abbs, J. H. (1986). Variant and invariant characteristics of speech movements. Experimental Brain Research, 65, 156-166.
  • Gracco, V. L., & Lofqvist, A. (1994). Speech motor coordination and control: Evidence from lip, jaw, and laryngeal movements. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 6585-6597.
  • Hertrich, I., & Ackermann, H. (2000). Lip-jaw and tongue-jaw coordination during rate-controlled syllable repetitions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 2236-2247.
  • Hill, A. J., Theodoros, D. G., Russell, T. G., Cahill, L. M., Ward, E. C., & Clark, K. M. (2006). An internet-based telerehabilitation system for the assessment of motor speech disorders: A pilot study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(1), 45-56.
  • Hughes, O. M., & Abbs, J. H. (1976). Labial-mandibular coordination in the production of speech: Implication for the operation of motor equivalence. Phonetica, 33, 199-221.
  • Hustad, K. C. (2006). A closer look at transcription intelligibility for speakers with dysarthria: Evaluation of scoring paradigms and linguistic errors made by listeners. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(3), 268-277.
  • Keintz, C. K., Bunton, K., & Hoit, J. D. (2007). Influence of visual information on the intelligibility of dysarthric speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3), 222-234.
  • Kelso, J. A., Tuller, B., Vatikiotis-Bateson, E., & Fowler, C. A. (1984). Functionally specific articulatory cooperation following jaw perturbations during speech: Evidence for coordinative structures. International Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 812-832.
  • Kent, R. D. (2000). Research on speech motor control and its disorders: A review and prospective. Journal of Communication Disorders, 33, 391-428.
  • Ong, D., & Stone, M. (1998). Three-dimensional vocal tract shapes in /r/ and /l/: A study of MRI, ultrasound, electropalatography, and acoustics. Phonoscope, 1, 1-13.
  • Orlikoff, R. F. (1992). The use of instrumental measures in the assessment and treatment of motor speech disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13(1), 25-38.
  • Ostry, D. J., & Flanagan, J. R. (1989). Human jaw movement in mastication and speech. Archives of Oral Biology, 34, 685-693.
  • Larson, C. (1985). Neurophysiology of speech and swallowing. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 275-291.
  • Liss, J. M., Krein-Jones, K., Wszolek, Z. K., & Caviness J. N. (2006). Speech characteristics of patients with pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration and their application to presymptomatic detection in at-risk relatives. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(3), 226-235.
  • Logemann, J. A. (1985). The relationship of speech and swallowing in head and neck surgical patients. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 351-359.
  • Maassen, B. (2002). Issues contrasting adult acquired versus developmental apraxia of speech. Seminars in Speech and Language, 23, 257-266.
  • McHenry, M. A., Minton, J. T., Wilson, R. L., & Post, Y. V. (1994). Intelligibility and nonspeech orofacial strength and force control following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1271-1283.
  • McLeod, S., & Searl, J. (2006). Adaptation to an electropalatograph palate: Acoustic, impressionistic, and perceptual data. America Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(2), 192-206.
  • Moore, C. A. (1993). Symmetry of mandibular muscle activity as an index of coordinative strategy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 31, 670-680.
  • Morrison, E. B., Rigrodsky, S., & Mysak, E. D. (1970). Parkinson's disease: Speech disorder and released infantile oroneuromotor activity. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 13, 655-666.
  • Netsell, R., Daniel, B., & Celesia, G. G. (1975). Acceleration and weakness in parkinsonian dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40, 170-078.
  • Palmer, M. F., & Osborn, C. D. (1940). A study of tongue pressures of speech defective and normal speaking individuals. Journal of Speech Disorders, 52, 133-140.
  • Peterson, S. E., Fox, P. T., Posner, M. I., Mintun, M., & Raichle, M. E. (1988). Positron emission tomography studies of the cortical anatomy of single word processing. Nature, 331, 585-589.
  • Ringel, R. L., & Ewanowski, S. J. (1965). Oral perception. I. Two-point discrimination. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 8(4), 389-398.
  • Ringel, R. L., & Fletcher, H. M. (1967). Oral perception. 3. Texture discrimination. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 10(3), 642-649.
  • Robbins, J. (1985). Swallowing and speech problems in the neurologically impaired adult. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6(4), 337-350.
  • Rosenbek, J., Lemme, M., Ahern, M., Harris, E., & Wertz, T. (1973). A treatment for apraxia of speech in adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 38, 462-472.
  • Solomon, N. P., & Hixon, T. J. (1993). Speech breathing in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 294-310.
  • Till, J. A., & Goff, A. M. (1986, November). Task variables affecting temporal structure and respiratory patterns in speech. Asha, 28, 102.
  • Wambaugh, J. L., Duffy, J. R., McNeil, M. R., Robin, D. A., & Rogers, M. A. (2006). Treatment guidelines for acquired apraxia of speech: A synthesis and evaluation of the evidence. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14, xv-xxxiii.
  • Wambaugh, J. L., Duffy, J. R., McNeil, M. R., Robin, D. A., & Rogers, M. A. (2006). Treatment guidelines for acquired apraxia of speech: Treatment descriptions and recommendations. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14, xxv-lxvii.
  • Westbury, J. R., Lindstrom, M. J., & McClean, M. D. (2002). Tongues and lips without jaws: A comparison of methods for decoupling speech movements. International Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 651-662.

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Please cite this article as:

Bahr, D. (2008). A Topical Bibliography on Oral Motor Assessment and Treatment. Oral Motor Institute, 2(1). Available from www.oralmotorinstitute.org.

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